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Do Deer Eat Corn? (and Pros and Cons)

As an avid nature lover and outdoor enthusiast, I’m often pondering questions about wildlife behavior and biology. One topic I’ve been particularly interested in lately is: do deer eat corn? This common grain is prevalent across the country, especially in the Midwest, so understanding its role in the deer diet can provide useful insight. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll take a detailed look at the pros and cons of deer consuming corn.

Deer do eat corn and are attracted to its sweet flavor. However, corn should only comprise a small part of their diet, as too much can cause digestive issues. When used properly as a supplemental food source, corn can provide energy and nutrition. But it lacks some nutrients deer need, so a diverse diet is ideal.

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Why Do Deer Eat Corn?

To understand the appeal of corn for deer, we first need to consider their taste preferences. Deer have a strong sweet tooth and are naturally attracted to high-energy foods like fruits, acorns, and grain. This motivates them to seek out corn as an appealing snack.

Corn is also easy for deer to find and consume. Hunters frequently use shelled corn as bait to attract deer, scattering it on the ground or placing it in feeders. Corn is one of the most popular and affordable choices for baiting deer because it’s palatable and nutritious. During the fall harvest season, deer will also forage in agricultural fields and eat corn directly from the stalks.

When natural food sources are scarce, such as in winter, corn can provide supplemental nutrition and energy. The natural winter diet of twigs, bark, buds, and shrubs is low in fat and calories. Corn helps deer get the extra calories they need to stay warm and active when their normal foods are limited.

Pros of Deer Eating Corn

Given deer’s strong attraction to corn, it’s worth considering the potential benefits of corn consumption:

  • Highly palatable and appetizing – Deer love the sweet, starchy taste of corn and eat it readily.
  • Energy-dense – With a high carbohydrate content, corn provides quick energy for deer, especially in cold weather.
  • Supports digestion – When mixed properly with other foods, corn can aid digestion and provide balanced nutrition.
  • Easily accessible – Corn is a cheap and convenient supplemental food source for deer when natural foods are limited.
  • Familiar food source – In agricultural areas, deer may regularly forage on corn during the growing season and are accustomed to eating it.

During the right seasons and when not over-consumed, corn can give deer an energy boost and valuable calories. The key is moderation and variety in their diet. Used occasionally as a supplement, corn is a helpful tool for managing deer populations. On the flip side, it is important to acknowledge the existence of certain drawbacks.

Cons of Feeding Deer Corn

While corn has some benefits, relying too heavily on corn comes with health risks for deer. Here are the main drawbacks and dangers:

  • Nutritional deficiencies – Corn is low in protein, minerals, and vitamins compared to deer’s natural foods.
  • Digestive issues – Abruptly transitioning to corn can disturb the delicate pH balance in deer’s complex 4-chambered stomachs.
  • Rumen acidosis – Overeating grains like corn causes rumen acidosis, which can be fatal. It leads to diarrhea, dehydration, and damage to the stomach lining.
  • Bloat – Deer that engorge on corn can suffer from painful, potentially deadly bloat.
  • Tooth decay – The high starch content of corn may promote tooth decay in deer over time.
  • Poor antler growth – Without balanced minerals and protein, antler development may be stunted.

Clearly, there are risks involved in letting corn dominate the deer diet. While occasional small amounts are usually fine, a deer’s system can only handle so much corn before negative impacts emerge. Monitoring corn consumption and integrating diverse foods is crucial.

How Much Corn Do Deer Eat?

In a natural setting, deer eat very little corn on a regular basis. Even when living near agricultural fields, corn makes up a small fraction of their overall diet. Deer will supplement their normal browse and forage with some corn, but it is not a dietary staple.

However, when humans provide supplemental corn, either purposefully or incidentally, deer intake can increase substantially. Deer may eat 1-2 pounds of corn bait per day during hunting season. Occasional large amounts do not necessarily harm healthy deer. The concerns arise when corn starts replacing its natural food sources and comprises over 25% of its intake.

Unfortunately, it is hard to quantify exactly how much corn-free-ranging deer consume across seasons. But observations of wild deer suggest they self-regulate and corn remains a relatively minor part of the diet. Captive deer fed ad-lib corn typically suffer health problems, underscoring the need for moderation.

Tips for Safely Feeding Deer Corn

If you do choose to provide supplemental corn for deer, some tips will help keep their diet balanced:

  • Avoid feeding corn in winter when deer aren’t adapted to digesting grains.
  • Transition slowly from natural browse to corn over 2-3 weeks.
  • Limit corn to less than 25% of total food intake.
  • Provide alternative feeds like alfalfa, oats, or food plot mixes along with corn.
  • Spread out corn widely rather than concentrating it in feeders to prevent gorging.
  • Use corn as bait for hunting judiciously and stop once the hunting season ends.
  • Monitor herd health carefully and discontinue corn if problems arise.

With some common sense precautions, corn can be used successfully as part of sustainable deer management. But it should never overwhelm the natural diet deer rely on for balanced nutrition. Variety and moderation are key.

Deer Digestion of Corn

To understand how corn affects deer, it helps to have a basic grasp of their digestive system. Deer are ruminants, meaning they have a 4-chambered stomach:

  1. Rumen – fermentation chamber where microbes break down fiber
  2. Reticulum – continues the mechanical breakdown of food
  3. Omasum – absorbs water and nutrients
  4. Abomasum – final chamber resembling our stomach

This specialized system allows deer to extract nutrients from fibrous plant materials. The rumen contains a delicate balance of microorganisms that ferment and digest deer’s vegetarian diet. When the microbe population and pH level are disrupted, digestion suffers.

Corn is made up of easily digestible carbohydrates. While deer thoroughly chew their cud to aid digestion, a sudden large amount of corn can overwhelm the microbes and cause acidosis. The starch in corn is also broken down into sugars that promote tooth decay. For optimal function, the deer rumen requires a gradual transition to new foods like corn.

How Long Does it Take a Deer to Digest Corn?

Most ruminants, including deer, cattle, and sheep, take around 24-36 hours to fully digest a meal. This gives the microbes time to work through chewing the cud and breaking down fiber. However, digestion time depends on the food type:

  • Fibrous browse – 36+ hours
  • Concentrate pellets/grain – 24 hours
  • Easily digestible carbs like corn – 12-18 hours

The faster digestion of corn allows nutrients to be absorbed quicker. But it can be problematic if deer then consume more food before the previous meal has been processed. Taking the time to properly digest each meal is important for gut health.

Corn Nutritional Value for Deer

When evaluating different deer foods, it helps to examine the nutritional breakdown. Here are the key nutrients in corn:

Nutrient & EnergyCorn
Energy364 kcal
Calcium0 mg
Phosphorus92 mg
Corn nutrition facts per 100 grams – sources: FDA,

As these nutrients demonstrate, corn is relatively low in protein and calcium. It also does not provide the high fiber content that promotes healthy rumen function. However, corn does offer ample carbohydrates for energy.

By alternating corn with other feeds, deer can obtain a fuller spectrum of nutrition. Corn should be viewed as a supplement, not the foundation of the diet. When relying too heavily on corn, deer miss out on key vitamins, minerals, protein, and fiber needed for optimal growth and health.


To wrap up, do deer eat corn? Yes, deer commonly eat corn and are enticed by its sweet flavor and carb-rich energy. However, corn consumption comes with health trade-offs. While fine in moderation, too much corn can cause nutritional deficiencies, tooth decay, digestive upset, and even death.

By following some best practices like mixing in alternative feeds, transitioning slowly, and limiting intake, corn can be used judiciously as part of sustainable deer management. Avoid large amounts of corn, especially in winter when deer metabolism has shifted.

Corn should never overwhelm the diverse native forage that deer thrive on. With a balanced approach, corn can provide supplemental nutrition to deer when natural food is limited. But it is no substitute for the variety of plants deer are adapted to eating. By understanding the pros and cons, corn can be used constructively to help maintain deer health and populations.

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